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The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up 2 thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population.They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwells forces in 1655, The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time.
The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations.
Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and then forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition.
Some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, and from there to Jamaica.
Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers.
Named , the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica.